**Computer Science and Engineering**

**Section-1: Engineering Mathematics:**

**Discrete Mathematics:**

Propositional and first order logic. Sets, relations, functions, partial orders and lattices. Groups. Graphs: connectivity, matching, coloring.**Combinatorics:**

counting, recurrence relations, generating functions.**Linear Algebra:**

Matrices, determinants, system of linear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, LU decomposition.**Calculus:**

Limits, continuity and differentiability. Maxima and minima. Mean value theorem. Integration.**Probability:**

Random variables. Uniform, normal, exponential, poisson and binomial distributions. Mean, median, mode and standard deviation. Conditional probability and Bayes theorem.

**Section 2: Digital Logic**

Boolean algebra. Combinational and sequential circuits. Minimization. Number representations and computer arithmetic (fixed and floating point).

**Section 3: Computer Organization and Architecture**

Machine instructions and addressing modes. ALU, data-path and control unit. Instruction pipelining. Memory hierarchy: cache, main memory and secondary storage; I/O interface (interrupt and DMA mode).

**Section 4: Programming and Data Structures**

Programming in C. Recursion. Arrays, stacks, queues, linked lists, trees, binary search trees, binary heaps, graphs.

**Section 5: Algorithms**

Searching, sorting, hashing. Asymptotic worst case time and space complexity. Algorithm design techniques: greedy, dynamic programming and divide-and-conquer. Graph search, minimum spanning trees, shortest paths.

**Section 6: Theory of Computation**

Regular expressions and finite automata. Context-free grammars and push-down automata. Regular and context-free languages, pumping lemma. Turing machines and undecidability.

**Section 7: Compiler Design**

Lexical analysis, parsing, syntax-directed translation. Runtime environments. Intermediate code generation.

**Section 8: Operating System**

Processes, threads, inter-process communication, concurrency and synchronization. Deadlock. CPU scheduling. Memory management and virtual memory. File systems.

**Section 9: Databases**

ER-model. Relational model: relational algebra, tuple calculus, SQL. Integrity constraints, normal forms. File organization, indexing (e.g., B and B+ trees). Transactions and concurrency control.

**Section 10: Computer Networks**

Concept of layering. LAN technologies (Ethernet). Flow and error control techniques, switching. IPv4/IPv6, routers and routing algorithms (distance vector, link state). TCP/UDP and sockets, congestion control. Application layer protocols (DNS, SMTP, POP, FTP, HTTP). Basics of Wi-Fi. Network security: authentication, basics of public key and private key cryptography, digital signatures and certificates, firewalls.

**Food Engineering and Technology**

**Section 1: Food Chemistry and Nutrition**

**Water& Water Activity: **water in food, bound moisture, unbound moisture, free moisture, equilibrium moisture content, water activity of microorganisms, water activity and shelf stability of food products

**Carbohydrates: **structure and functional properties of m o n o , d i , o l i g o and poly - saccharides including starch, cellulose, pectic substances and dietary fibre, gelatinization and retrogradation of starch.

**Proteins: **classification and structure of proteins in food, Physico chemical and functional properties of amino acids

**Lipids: **classification and structure of lipids, rancidity, reversion, interesterification, polymorphism.

**Pigments: **carotenoids, chlorophylls, anthocyanins, tannins and myoglobin.

**Food flavours: **terpenes, esters, aldehydes, ketones and quinines.

**Enzymes: **specificity, simple and inhibition kinetics, coenzymes, enzymatic and non- enzymatic browning, enzymes in food processing

**Nutrition: **balanced diet, essential amino acids and essential fatty acids, protein efficiency ratio, water soluble and fat soluble vitamins, role of minerals in nutrition, co -factors, anti -nutrients, nutraceuticals, nutrient deficiency diseases.

**Section 2: Food Microbiology**

**Characteristics of microorganisms: **morphology of bacteria, yeast, mold and actinomycetes, spores and vegetative cells, simple and gram staining.

**Microbial growth: **Factors influencing microbial growth, bacterial growth curve, generation time, culture doubling time, microbial growth and death kinetics, serial dilution technique.

**Food Microbiology: **spoilage microorganisms in different food products including milk, fish, meat, egg,fruits and vegetables, cereals and their products, genetically modified foods, food borne diseases

**Fermented foods and beverages: **curd, yoghurt, cheese, pickles, soya-sauce, sauerkraut, idli, dosa, vinegar, alcoholic beverages and sausage.

**Section 3: Food Products Technology**

**Food Preservation Technologies**: thermal processing, chilling, freezing, dehydration, addition of preservatives and food additives, irradiation, fermentation, hurdle technology, intermediate moisture foods.

**Food packaging and storage: **Packaging materials, aseptic packaging, vacuum packaging, and retortable packaging controlled and modified atmosphere storage.

**Cereal processing and products: **milling of rice, wheat, and maize, parboiling of paddy, bread, biscuits, extruded products and ready to eat breakfast cereals.

**Fruits and vegetables processing: **extraction, clarification, concentration and packaging of fruit juice,jam, jelly, marmalade, squash, candies, tomato sauce, ketchup, and puree, potato chips, pickles **.**

**Plantation crops processing and products: **tea, coffee, cocoa, spice, extraction of essential oils and oleoresins from spices.

**Milk and milk products processing: **pasteurization and sterilization, cream, butter, ghee, ice- cream, cheese and milk powder.

**Fish, meat and Poultry processing:**Curing,smoking,drying, canning, and freezing of fish and meat; Fish products and by products, meat sausage, meat analogues, biochemical changes in post mortem a n d tenderization of muscles, Poultry processing technology, production of egg powder.

**Waste management: **BOD, COD, biological waste treatment techniques, solid waste management

**Food standards and quality maintenance: **FPO, PFA, Agmark, ISI, HACCP, food plant sanitation and cleaning in place (CIP).

**Section 4: Food Process Engineering**

**Fundamentals of Food Engineering: **Material and energy balance, Momentum transfer, flow of fluids and, Reynolds number, viscosity, Newtonian and Non Newtonian fluids

**Heat transfer: **heat transfer by conduction, convection, radiation, heat exchangers

**Mass transfer: **molecular diffusion and Fick’s law, conduction and convective mass transfer, permeability through single and multilayer films.

**Mechanical operations: **size reduction of solids, high pressure homogenization, filtration, centrifugation, settling, sieving, mixing & agitation of liquid.

**Thermal operations: **thermal processing and process time evaluation, evaporation of liquid foods, drying kinetics, drying equipments, spray and freeze-drying, freezing and crystallization. .

**Humidification: **General theory, psychometric chart, fundamental concept of humidification and dehumidification, cooling tower.

**Water Resources and Hydraulics Engineering**

**Section 1: General Aptitude**

**Verbal ability**: English grammar, Sentence completion, Verbal analogies, Word Groups, Instructions, Critical reasoning and Verbal deduction;

**Numerical ability**: Numerical computation, Numerical Estimation, Numerical reasoning and data interpretation, pattern recognition.

**Section 2: Engineering Mathematics**

**Linear Algebra**: Matrix algebra; Systems of linear equations;

**Calculus**: Functions of single variable; Limit, continuity and differentiability; Mean value theorems, local maxima and minima, application of definite integral to obtain area and volume; Partial derivatives; Total derivative; Gradient, Divergence and Curl,.

**Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE)**: First order (linear and non-linear) equations; higher order linear equations with constant coefficients.

**Partial Differential Equation (PDE)**: Fourier series; separation of variables; solutions of one-dimensional diffusion equation; first and second order one-dimensional wave equation.

**Probability and Statistics**: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems; Conditional probability; Discrete Random variables: Poisson and Binomial distributions; Continuous random variables: normal and exponential distributions; Descriptive statistics - Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; Hypothesis testing.

**Numerical Methods**: Accuracy and precision; error analysis. Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations; Least square approximation, numerical differentiation, Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, single and multi-step methods for first order differential equations.

**Section 3: Structural Engineering**

**Solid Mechanics: **Bending moment and shear force in statically determinate beams; Simple stress and strain relationships; flexural and shear stresses.

**Structural Analysis: **Statically determinate and indeterminate structures by force/ energy methods; Method of superposition; Analysis of trusses; Displacement methods: Slope deflection and moment distribution methods.

**Construction Materials and Management: **Construction Materials: Structural steel - composition, material properties and behaviour; Concrete - constituents, mix design, short-term and long-term properties; Bricks and mortar; Timber; Bitumen. Construction Management: Types of construction projects; Tendering and construction contracts; Rate analysis and standard specifications; Cost estimation; Project planning and network analysis - PERT and CPM.

**Concrete Structures:** Working stress, Limit state and Ultimate load design concepts; Design of beams, slabs, columns; Bond and development length .

**Steel Structures: **Working stress and Limit state design concepts; Design of tension and compression members, beams and beam- columns, column bases; Connections - simple and eccentric, beam-column connections.

**Section 4: Geotechnical Engineering**

**Soil Mechanics: **Origin of soils, soil structure and fabric; Three-phase system and phase relationships, index properties; Unified and Indian standard soil classification system; Permeability - one dimensional flow, Darcy’s law; Seepage through soils - two-dimensional flow, flow nets, uplift pressure, piping; Principle of effective stress, capillarity, seepage force and quicksand condition; Compaction in laboratory and field conditions; One-dimensional consolidation, time rate of consolidation; Mohr’s circle, stress paths, effective and total shear strength parameters, characteristics of clays and sand.

**Foundation Engineering: **Sub-surface investigations - scope, drilling bore holes, sampling, plate load test, standard penetration and cone penetration tests; Earth pressure theories - Rankine and Coulomb; Stability of slopes - finite and infinite slopes, method of slices and Bishop’s method; Stress distribution in soils - Boussinesq’s and Westergaard’s theories, pressure bulbs; Shallow foundations - Terzaghi’s and Meyerhoff’s bearing capacity theories, effect of water table; Combined footing and raft foundation; Contact pressure; Settlement analysis in sands and clays; Deep foundations - types of piles, dynamic and static formulae, load capacity of piles in sands and clays, pile load test, negative skin friction.

**Section 5: Water Resources Engineering**

**Fluid Mechanics: **Properties of fluids, fluid statics; Continuity, momentum, energy and corresponding equations; Potential flow, applications of momentum and energy equations; Laminar and turbulent flow; Flow in pipes, pipe networks; Concept of boundary layer and its growth.

**Hydraulics: **Forces on immersed bodies; Flow measurement in channels and pipes; Dimensional analysis and hydraulic similitude; Kinematics of flow, velocity triangles; Basics of hydraulic machines, specific speed of pumps and turbines; Channel Hydraulics - Energy-depth relationships, specific energy, critical flow, slope profile, hydraulic jump, uniform flow and gradually varied flow

**Hydrology: **Hydrologic cycle, precipitation, evaporation, evapotranspiration, watershed, infiltration, unit hydrographs, hydrograph analysis, flood estimation and routing, reservoir capacity, reservoir and channel routing, surface run-off models, ground water hydrology - steady state well hydraulics and aquifers; Application of Darcy’s law.

**Irrigation: **Duty, delta, estimation of evapo-transpiration; Crop water requirements; Design of lined and unlined canals, head works, gravity dams and spillways; Design of weirs on permeable foundation; Types of irrigation systems, irrigation methods; Water logging and drainage; Canal regulatory works, cross-drainage structures, outlets and escapes.

**Section 6: Environmental Engineering**

**Water and Waste Water: **Quality standards, basic unit processes and operations for water treatment. Drinking water standards, water requirements, basic unit operations and unit processes for surface water treatment, distribution of water. Sewage and sewerage treatment, quantity and characteristics of wastewater. Primary, secondary and tertiary treatment of wastewater, effluent discharge standards. Domestic wastewater treatment, quantity of characteristics of domestic wastewater, primary and secondary treatment. Unit operations and unit processes of domestic wastewater, sludge disposal.

**Municipal Solid Wastes: **Characteristics, generation, collection and transportation of solid wastes, engineered systems for solid waste management (reuse/ recycle, energy recovery, treatment and disposal).

**Section 7: Transportation Engineering**

**Transportation Infrastructure**: Highway alignment and engineering surveys; Geometric design of highways - cross-sectional elements, sight distances, horizontal and vertical alignments.

**Highway Pavements**: Highway materials - desirable properties and quality control tests; Design of bituminous paving mixes; Design factors for flexible and rigid pavements.

**Section 8: Geomatics Engineering**

Principles of surveying; Errors and their adjustment; Maps - scale, coordinate system; Distance and angle measurement - Levelling and trigonometric levelling; Traversing and triangulation survey; Total station; Horizontal and vertical curves.

**Green Energy Technology **

**(General Aptitude in Energy - 40 Marks, Mathematics - 20 Marks, Mechanical Engineering - 20 Marks, Electrical Engineering - 20 Marks)**

** Section 1 : Energy and Environment:** Origin of the earth; Earth’s temperature and atmosphere; Sun as the source of energy; Biological processes; photosynthesis; food chains; Energy sources: classification of energy sources, quality and concentration of energy sources; Overview of world energy scenario; Fossil fuel reserves ‐ estimates, duration, overview of India’s energy scenario, energy and development linkage. Ecological principles of nature, concept of ecosystems; different types of ecosystems; ecosystem theories; energy flow in the ecosystems; biodiversity. Environmental effects of energy extraction, conversion and use; Sources of pollution; primary and secondary pollutants; Consequence of pollution growth; Air, water, soil, thermal, noise pollution‐ cause and effect; Causes of global, regional and local climate change; Pollution control methods; Environmental laws on pollution control. Global warming; Green House Gas emissions, impacts, mitigation; Sustainability; Externalities, Future energy systems; clean energy technologies; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC); Sustainable development; Kyoto Protocol; Conference of Parties (COP); Clean Development Mechanism (CDM); Prototype Carbon Fund (PCF).

** Section 2: Engineering Mathematics**: Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Calculus: Functions of single variable, limit, continuity and differentiability, mean value theorems, indeterminate forms; evaluation of definite and improper integrals; double and triple integrals; partial derivatives, total derivative, Taylor series (in one and two variables), maxima and minima, Fourier series; gradient, divergence and curl, vector identities, directional derivatives, line, surface and volume integrals, applications of Gauss, Stokes and Green’s theorems.

Differential equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear); higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients; Euler-Cauchy equation; initial and boundary value problems; Laplace transforms; solutions of heat, wave and Laplace's equations.

Complex variables: Analytic functions; Cauchy-Riemann equations; Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula; Taylor and Laurent series.

Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability, sampling theorems, conditional probability; mean, median, mode and standard deviation; random variables, binomial, Poisson and normal distributions.

Numerical Methods: Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations; integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rules; single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

** Section 3: Applied Mechanics and Design Engineering Mechanics:** Free-body diagrams and equilibrium; trusses and frames; virtual work; kinematics and dynamics of particles and of rigid bodies in plane motion; impulse and momentum (linear and angular) and energy formulations, collisions. Mechanics of Materials: Stress and strain, elastic constants, Poisson's ratio; Mohr’s circle for plane stress and plane strain; thin cylinders; shear force and bending moment diagrams; bending and shear stresses; deflection of beams; torsion of circular shafts; Euler’s theory of columns; energy methods; thermal stresses; strain gauges and rosettes; testing of materials with universal testing machine; testing of hardness and impact strength.

Theory of Machines: Displacement, velocity and acceleration analysis of plane mechanisms; dynamic analysis of linkages; cams; gears and gear trains; flywheels and governors; balancing of reciprocating and rotating masses; gyroscope.

Vibrations: Free and forced vibration of single degree of freedom systems, effect of damping; vibration isolation; resonance; critical speeds of shafts.

** Section 3: Thermal Sciences:** Heat-Transfer: Modes of heat transfer; one dimensional heat conduction, resistance concept and electrical analogy, heat transfer through fins; unsteady heat conduction, lumped parameter system, Heisler's charts; thermal boundary layer, dimensionless parameters in free and forced convective heat transfer, heat transfer correlations for flow over flat plates and through pipes, effect of turbulence; heat exchanger performance, LMTD and NTU methods; radiative heat transfer, StefanBoltzmann law, Wien's displacement law, black and grey surfaces, view factors, radiation network analysis.

Thermodynamics: Thermodynamic systems and processes; properties of pure substances, behaviour of ideal and real gases; zeroth and first laws of thermodynamics, calculation of work and heat in various processes; second law of thermodynamics; thermodynamic property charts and tables, availability and irreversibility; thermodynamic relations.

Applications: Power Engineering: Air and gas compressors; vapour and gas power cycles, concepts of regeneration and reheat. I.C. Engines: Air-standard Otto, Diesel and dual cycles.

Refrigeration and air-conditioning: Vapour and gas refrigeration and heat pump cycles; properties of moist air, psychrometric chart, basic psychrometric processes.

Turbomachinery: Impulse and reaction principles, velocity diagrams, Pelton-wheel, Francis and Kaplan turbines.

** Section 4: Electric Circuits** : Series & parallel circuit, Network graph, KCL, KVL, Node and Mesh analysis, Transient response of dc and ac networks, Sinusoidal steady‐state analysis, Resonance, Passive filters, Ideal current and voltage sources, Thevenin’s theorem, Norton’s theorem, Superposition theorem, Maximum power transfer theorem, Two‐port networks, Three phase circuits, Power and power factor in ac circuits, instruments.

** Section 5: Electromagnetic Fields** : Coulomb's Law, Electric Field Intensity, Electric Flux Density, Gauss's Law, Divergence, Electric field and potential due to point, line, plane and spherical charge distributions, Effect of dielectric medium, Capacitance of simple configurations, Biot‐Savart’s law, Ampere’s law, Curl, Faraday’s law, Lorentz force, Inductance, Magnetomotive force, Reluctance, Magnetic circuits,Self and Mutual inductance of simple configurations.

** Section 6: Electrical Machines**: Single phase transformer: equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, open circuit and short circuit tests, regulation and efficiency; Three phase transformers: connections, parallel operation; Auto‐transformer, Electromechanical energy conversion principles, DC machines: separately excited, series and shunt, motoring and generating mode of operation and their characteristics, starting and speed control of dc motors; Three phase induction motors: principle of operation, types, performance, torque-speed characteristics, no-load and blocked rotor tests, equivalent circuit, starting and speed control; Operating principle of single phase induction motors; Synchronous machines: cylindrical and salient pole machines, performance, regulation and parallel operation of generators, starting of synchronous motor, characteristics; Types of losses and efficiency calculations of electric machines